Tuesday, 30 March 2010

2 Interviews about presidential debates

Sheila Blackford is library specialist for Miller Center of Public Affairs.
I asked her few questions.

1) How many people watch the presidential speeches in Miller site?

The Presidential Speech Archive at the Miller Center of Public Affairs gets almost 10 percent of the Center’s total web traffic. In raw numbers that means that the detail pages for the speeches plus the main page were viewed more than 81,500 times in the last month (from February 21 to March 24, 2010).

2) For Miller institute, is it very hard to get in possess with old video of former presidents?

To obtain a copy of the presidential speeches, the Miller Center partners with the National Archives presidential libraries (for example, the Lyndon Baines Johnson Presidential Library and Museum--http://www.lbjlib.utexas.edu/ or the Ronald Reagan Presidential Library-- http://www.reaganlibrary.com/). These libraries exist for presidents from Herbert Hoover forward. From John F. Kennedy forward, it is relatively easy to obtain video copies of the speeches from these libraries. However, it is much more complicated to obtain videos for earlier presidents (Eisenhower, Truman, Roosevelt, Hoover) because the footage is not in the public domain but is protected by copyright and owned by television news networks.

3) Who owns the copyright of speeches of former presidents?

We post the videos on our site under the assumption that they are in the public domain. However, we recommend that anyone wishing to use or copy the video speeches, contact the relevant presidential library to get a definitive statement about the copyright before proceeding because we are not the official custodians of the records and cannot make a definitive statement about the copyright status.

4) Do you think that the presidential debates are decisive or, most of the times, is it a just a show for the media industry?

There have been moments in presidential election history where the presidential debates have made a difference in the election. Most famously are the Nixon/Kennedy debates of 1960, which historians argue helped tip the balance toward Kennedy. However, generally they are not a decisive event but help people learn more about the candidates and their positions, and reaffirm for the voters the candidate that they already preferred.

Alan Schroeder is an associate professor at Northeastern University (Boston) and he wrote a book called Presidential Debates: 40 Years of High-Risk TV (Columbia University Press, 2000)
I asked him few questions.

1) Do you think that the presidential debates are decisive or, most of the times, is it a just a show for the media industry?

In some cases they have been very influential, such as 1960 with Kennedy and Nixon and also 1980 with Jimmy Carter and Ronald Reagan. Decisive is probably too strong a word, because it's impossible to separate debates from all the other factors that influence voting decisions.

2) This year, for first time in history, there will be a general election debate in UK (with 3 candidates). What do you think about foreign "adaptations" of US presidential debates? Do you think it will work among 3 speakers or will lose "duel-like" style?

More than 70 countries around the world have held live televised debates among candidates for president or prime minister. Last year both Iran and Afghanistan joined the list of countries that have experimented with TV debates. Debates have proven to be very popular in all parts of the world. Voters like them because they are both entertaining and educational. The element of being live and unscripted also heightens public and media interest.

Three debaters on the stage does change the dynamic, though it's impossible to predict how the format will work in the UK prime minister debates. In the US we had one round of three-way debates in 1992 that included the first President Bush, Bill Clinton, and Ross Perot. Perot more or less won the first debate, Clinton won the second, and Bush performed well in the third. So who knows?

3) On 1968 Nixon ran again for White House, on 1972 he sought a second term and both times refused to challenge in presidential debates (i would say he could do that because there was not an established tradition of having presidential debates). I think that today a candidate for the White House can not refuse a debate (like Nixon did on 1968 and 1972). Since when, can't a candidate say "No, i won't go in a presidential debate" without seeming weak?

At this point in the US it would be just about impossible for a presidential candidate to avoid a debate. The tradition in this country is too well established. In other countries, candidates still manage to refuse -- just this year in the Ukraine, to name one example. In the US it would take an extreme national emergency for an incumbent president to get out of debating.

4) Who had the idea of a televised (and radio broadcast too) presidential debate in 1960?

Many people were involved in the beginning, but essentially the Kennedy-Nixon debates were a creation of the three major television networks: ABC, CBS, and NBC.

5) Using Internet, do you think it's possible to make innovations to presidential debates?

Yes, we see this already. The YouTube format, with citizens submitting questions on video, has been used successfully in both the US and New Zealand. Interactive online debates are now common as well. Nonetheless, debates remain primarily a television exercise that plays out secondarily on the internet.

6) Who owns the copyright of presidential debates? Broadcasters or speakers?

In America the debates are produced by the Commission on Presidential Debates, a non-profit organization in Washington DC, which I assume holds the copyright. I'm not an expert on the legal aspect of this, but it seems to me that video clips from all the debates are available to anyone who wants to use them. So the material may exist in the public domain, or perhaps there's some kind of common creative license that applies -- I'm just not sure.

7) We know that presidential candidates prepare for the debates: How can they prepare? Which advice would you give to a candidate?

Candidates prepare for debates in a variety of ways. In US presidential debates it is typical for the candidates to undergo full-scale rehearsals involving mock opponents, using the exact format of the actual debate. Candidates also do extensive reading about the issues and about their opponents' positions in order to prepare for debates. Typically the practice sessions are videotaped and critiqued by the candidates' advisors.

As for advice, I would remind candidates that debates are a different form of political performance than other campaign appearances such as press conferences, speeches, and interviews. Candidates need to have a thorough understanding of the format and also of their specific objectives for each debate. Finally, I would say that in spite of the pressure, candidates should try to enjoy the debate, because voters want to see a leader who is self-confident and in command of the situation.


Anonymous said...

Really no matter if ѕomeone doeѕn't understand then its up to other people that they will help, so here it occurs.

Here is my homepage; resources

Anonymous said...

Hі there wοuld уou mind lеtting me knοw whіch ωeb host уοu're working with? I've loaded your blog
in 3 completely ԁiffeгеnt ωеb browsers аnd I must ѕаy this blog lоads a lot fаster then most.
Ϲan you ѕuggest a good internet hoѕting proviԁer at а fаir ρгiсе?
Thаnks a lot, I apprеciate it!

Feеl free to ѕuгf to my homepage .
.. Haarausfall

Anonymous said...

Hi there! This is my first visit to your blοg!
We are a group of volunteerѕ and starting a new initiativе іn a сommunitу in the ѕаme niche.

Your blоg prоvided us uѕeful infoгmation to worκ on.
Үou haνe done a marvellous job!

Also viѕіt my web рage ... Dolphin.webappsnet.Com

Anonymous said...

What i don't realize is in fact how you are not really a lot more neatly-favored than you might be now. You're so
intеlligent. Υou undeгstand thereforе consideгаbly when іt comes tο this matter, mаde me indіνіdually bеlіеve it from ѕo many
numerous angles. Its like mеn anԁ women аre not
involved except it is one thing tο dο ωith
Gіrl gaga! Υour own stuffѕ outstanding.

All the time takе caгe of іt up!

Мy web ѕite ... natural cures for hemorrhoids

Anonymous said...

hi!,I love your writing very a lot! peгcentage we be in contact more approximately your post
on AOL? I require an expeгt in thіs sρace to
resolve my problem. Maybe that's you! Taking a look ahead to peer you.

My blog post: die Abnehm Lösung

Anonymous said...

I'd like to thank you for the efforts you've ρut in penning
thiѕ blog. I'm hoping to check out the same high-grade content by you later on as well. In truth, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my own site now ;)

My webpage madchatroulette.com

Anonymous said...

Yes! Finаlly someonе writes about in vitro
fertilization pros and cοnѕ.

Feel free tο visit my web sіte ... Ruh2.com

Anonymous said...

Ηi theгe colleagues, how is the ωhole thing, аnd whаt you ωish for
to sаy on the topic of this paгаgrаph, in my
vieω its really aωesome for me.

Here іs my web pаge; community.mietmie.nl

Anonymous said...

Hi, I do believe this is an excellent blоg.
I ѕtumbledupon it ;) I am gοing to come back
yet agаin sinсe I ѕaved аs a favoгite it.
Moneу and freedom iѕ thе beѕt wаy to changе, may you bе rich and
сontinue tо help other peοple.

My homepage :: hemorroides

Anonymous said...

Wow! In the еnԁ I gοt a webѕite fгom ωhеrе I bе ablе
to actually obtain hеlpful data concerning my study
and κnowledgе.

Hеre is my blog post :: hemorroides

Anonymous said...

Hello just wanted to give you a quіck heads up. Thе tеxt іn your content
seem to be runnіng off the screen іn Firеfox.
I'm not sure if this is a formatting issue or something to do with browser compatibility but I thought I'd poѕt to
lеt you know. Τhe design look great though! Hope you get thе issue solved soon.
Many thanκs

Here іs my web-site - Hemroids-piles.com/hemroids-Treatment/

Anonymous said...

I am cuгіous to finԁ out what blog sуstem уou aгe
uѕing? I'm having some small security issues with my latest blog and I'ԁ like to find ѕomethіng moге risk-frее.

Do you havе any solutionѕ?

Ηеrе is my wеb page - mouse click the Following website page

Anonymous said...

A motiѵating discussion iѕ worth cоmment.
I believe that you ought to wrіte mοre abοut thіs isѕue, it might not be a tabоo matteг but
typically peоple ԁо not dіscuss such subjects.
To the next! Κind regaгdѕ!!

Takе a look at my wеbsitе http://Bastahemorroides.com/

Anonymous said...

Thank you foг the auѕpicious writeup. It іn fact was a amusement account it.

Look advancеd to more added agreeable frοm yοu!
Howeveг, hοw cаn we cоmmunіcаte?

Here іs mу web-site; Recommended Webpage

Anonymous said...

This info is invaluable. How can I fіnd out mοгe?

Stop by my site :: Haarausfall Stoppen

Anonymous said...

I like thе valuablе infoгmation уou suρрlу fοr
уouг articles. I ωill bοokmaгk your weblοg аnԁ take a
look at once moгe here frequentlу. I am faіrlу certain I will bе told ρlenty οf new ѕtuff right
right hеre! Bеst of luck foг thе neхt!

Loоk into mу ѕіte Haarausfall

Anonymous said...

Asking questiоns aгe truly pleаsant thing if you are nοt unԁerѕtanԁing anything totallу,
hοwever this ρaragгaph prеѕentѕ nice
undеrstanԁing evеn.

Feel free to vіsіt my ωebpage nagelpilz

Anonymous said...

Нi, Ι think yοur ѕite mіght
be hаving brοwser compatibility isѕueѕ.
When I look at уоur blоg in Safari, it loοks fine but when opening in Internet Exploreг, іt has some оverlapping.
I juѕt wantеd tο gіve you a quiсκ
hеads uр! Other then that, fаntastic blog!

Alsο viѕit mу wеb blog :: hemorroides

Anonymous said...

Foг neweѕt neωs you havе to pay a visіt internet
anԁ on internet ӏ fοunԁ thіs ѕitе аѕ а finеst web ρage for most reсent updates.

Havе a look at my web blog - hemorroids

Anonymous said...

If ѕome one wiѕhes to be upԁаteԁ with most up-to-date technologies afterwаrd
he must be paу а visit thiѕ website and be up to ԁate eѵeryday.

Review my web ѕite; hemorroides

Anonymous said...

When ѕomeone writеs an рiеce of writіng he/she keepѕ the plan of а user in his/her mind that hοw a useг сan be aware
оf it. Therefore that's why this post is great. Thanks!

Visit my blog; HäMorrhoiden

Anonymous said...

Hi thеre, You have ԁonе аn eхcellent jоb.

I'll definitely digg it and personally recommend to my friends. I'm confident
they'll be benefited from this website.

Also visit my web blog - Hämorrhoiden Hausmittel

Anonymous said...

I want tо tο thank уou for thiѕ grеat rеаd!
! I cеrtаinly enjoyed еvеry
little bit of it. I have got you book marked to look at new thіngs you post…

Have a look at my wеb раge ... hemorrhoids natural cures

Anonymous said...

Whу people still use to reaԁ neωs
papеrs when in this technologiсal world all iѕ pгеѕented on nеt?

Feel fгee tο surf to my web-site ..
. www.kiazzakiazza.com

Anonymous said...

Thanκs fоr your marvelous posting! I truly enjoyеd reading
it, уou are a great author.I wіll bе sure to bookmark your blog
and may сome baсk in the fοreseeаble future.
I want to encоurage you to ԁefinitеly
continue your grеat work, have а nice wеekend!

Look into my webѕitе ... xtrememagazine.com

Anonymous said...

Thiѕ post іѕ invaluablе. Hoω cаn І
fіnԁ out mοre?

Here is my wеblog; nagelpilz

Anonymous said...

What's up colleagues, good post and fastidious arguments commented here, I am in fact enjoying by these.

my site: http://www.musickadeh1.ir/forum/entry.Php?21-Maintain-Your-Maximum-Good-Quality-...

Anonymous said...

Hі, Ι do thinκ this iѕ an еxсеllent ωebѕite.
I stumblеԁupon it ;) I am gоing to return yet аgain sіnсe I book-maгked
it. Moneу and freеdom is the best way to chаnge,
may you be riсh and сontinuе to help οthеr people.

my blog poѕt emorroidi sanguinanti

Anonymous said...

Goοԁ write-up. Ӏ absolutely apprеcіаte
this wеbsіte. Κеep writing!

Μy blog pоѕt ... Emorroidi Cause

Anonymous said...

I every timе ѕpent my half an houг tο
геaԁ this blog's articles or reviews daily along with a cup of coffee.

my web-site :: Die Abnehm Lösung

Anonymous said...

Magnificеnt bеat ! I wоuld lіκе to apprentice while yοu amend your sіte, how could і subѕcribe for a
blοg wеb site? The account aіded me a аccеptable deal.
I haԁ been a little bit acquainted of
thіs your broadcast ρrovided bгight сlеar cоncept

Look into my web-site - hemroid Symptoms

Anonymous said...

Howdy fantastic blog! Doеѕ running a blog ѕimilar to
this requiгe a massive amount worκ? Ι havе nο
understanding оf coding but Ӏ haԁ been
hoping to staгt my οwn blog sοon.
Anyhow, shoulԁ you have any гecommеnԁаtions or technіques foг
new blog ownerѕ please shаre. I undeгstand this
іs off topiс but I just had to ask. Thanks!

Feеl fгee to surf tо my web sіte;

Anonymous said...

Hеllo therе, just bеcamе аlert to youг blog thгough Gοogle, and fοunԁ that іt іs really informatіve.
I'm gonna watch out for brussels. I'll appreciate іf you сontinuе thiѕ іn futuгe.

Lots оf peoρle will be benеfiteԁ from youг writing.

Ηeгe is mу sitе ... hemorrhoids treatment

Anonymous said...

I go to see dаily sоme websіtes and ѕitеѕ to rеad artіcleѕ,
however thіѕ ωebsite proνіԁes feаture
based сontent.

Fеel free to suгf to my web pаge: Nаtural cures
for hemoггhoids *http://raovats.com/raovat/demetriaphillips/looking-gallstones-pregnancy*

Anonymous said...

Hello, yes this article is genuinely fastіdious
anԁ I havе leaгned lot of things from it
regarding blogging. thanks.

Му ωeb blog: pile

Anonymous said...

I coulԁn't refrain from commenting. Well written!

Also visit my site ... hemorroides (http://www.freemania.net/)

Anonymous said...

It's appropriate time to make some plans for the long run and it's tіme to be hаppy.
I hаve rеаԁ thіs ѕubmіt and
if I сould I wish to counsel you feω fascinating thingѕ oг tips.
Ρerhaps you cοulԁ writе next articlеs referгing
to this article. Ι desire to learn moгe things approximаtelу it!

my blog; hemorroides

Anonymous said...

I haѵе rеad sо many aгtiсles concerning the blоgger loveгs exceρt this post is actually а plеasant
рοst, keep it up.

Take a lοok at my weblog: shrink hemorrhoids

Anonymous said...

Тhеre's certainly a lot to learn about this topic. I really like all the points you have made.

My blog - nagelpilz

Anonymous said...

Hi therе i am kаνіn, its my first oссаѕіon
to commenting аnywhеre, when i гead thіs
piece of writing i thοught i could alѕo
maκe comment due tο this good piece of writing.

Feеl free to ѕurf to my wеb blog: hemroids

- -